Companion Animal Euthanasia Training Course: Module 1. Overview of Companion Animal Euthanasia (1/10)
Before watching this video,please read carefully:p.1
"Before watching this video, please read carefully:
-The following module requires approximately 55 minutes to complete.
-The video must be played to completion during one sitting in order to receive credit.
-You may pause briefly or rewind to review content, but skipping ahead will result in noncredit for this module.
-Please make sure you have a reliable highspeed connection while watching this module."p.2
Companion Animal Euthanasia
Presented by Kathleen Cooneyp.3
KATHLEEN COONEY DVM,MS,CHPVp.4
This series contains pictures and video of actual euthanasia.
They have been collected with the consent in the interest of teaching euthanasia best practices.
These images and videos may not be reproduced outside of the CAETA program.p.5
14 ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS
G: Grief support materials provided
O: Outline caregiver and pet preferences
O: Offer privacy before and after death
D:Deliver proper technique
E: Establish rapport
U use pre-euthanasia sedation or anesthesia
T: Thorough, complete consent
H: Helpful and compassionate personnel
A: Adequate time
N: Narrate the process
A: Avoid pain and anxiety
S: Safe space to gather
I: Inclusion of loved ones
A: Assistance with body carep.6
-History of Euthanasia Methods and Acceptable Protocols
-The Human-Animal Bond
-The Changing Landscape of Veterinary Medicine
-The Future of Euthanasiap.7
-What is your perception of this image?
-Does this demonstrate a gentle death?
-Our mission revolves around concepts like:
-We see a dog at rest, under minimal restraint.
-Surrounded by people making sure she is comfortable.
The -This image exhibits a sense of:
-Think about the phrase, to die like an animal.p.9
It is time to change it so that "dying like an animal"
means something far richer and more meaningful
A Little History
New York City pound dogs were commonly drowned in the East River before the ASPCA took the pound contrast in 1895.p.11
Forms of Achieving Euthanasia
Inhalation of gases
Non-inhalant drug administration
Ideal euthanasia achieves a rapid death with little or no pain or anxiety for the animal.p.13
-Ether and chloroform
-Hydrogen cyanide gas
Routes included IV,IC,IThe,ITho,IM,SQ,PO,and rectal
Early Methods Continued
Minimum of 12 second currents applied,0.5 amperes per second(NR)
-Captive bolt and gunshotp.15
Early Methods Continuedp.16
The AVMA Guidelines
-1963,subsequent editions(7 of them),most recent 2013
-increasing attention paid to more species and uses
-Special focus on companion animals
-of note -14 references in 1963
-634 references in 2013p.17
Evaluating Euthanasia - The 14 Criteria
-Ability to induce loss of consciousness and death with minimal pain or anxiety-Time to induce unconsciousness
-Safety of personnel
-Compatibility with requirement and purpose
-Emotional effect on observer/operators
-Compatibility with subsequent evaluation / examination / use of tissuep.18
Evaluating Euthanasia - The 14 Criteria Cont.
-Drug availability and human abuse potential
-Compatibility with species, age, health status
-Ability to maintain equipment in proper working order
-Safety for predators/scavengers
-Environmental impacts both from methods and animal remain
AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals,2013p.19
Worldwide Guidelines and Education
-WSAPA document Methods for the Euthanasia of Dogs and Cats: Comparison and Recommendations
-Various councils, governing bodies writing independent guidelines or drawing from the AVMA
-Shelter organizations offering training to shelter technicians
- American Humane Association(AHA)
- Humane Society of the United States(HSUS)p.20
Module 1 Activity
Please take a moment to locate and download a copy of the American Veterinary Medical Association's Euthanasia Guidelines or the guidelines you use in your region of the world.p.21
Who Can Perform Euthanasia?
-Veterinary technicians/nurses(licensing laws vary by state)
-Shelter technicians(certified euthanasia technicians)
-Lay persons in cases of dangerous or diseased animals(example: Florida)p.22
United States Veterinary Technicians
States allowing technicians to euthanize without direct veterinary supervision
-OR - very loose description
Taken from the AVMA's Euthanasia Lows by State, compiled in 2015p.23
Euthanatos(greek) "good death"
Suetonius (121 AD)
-peaceful,loved ones near,prepared,pain-free
-spur on the medical community, better death, give palliative medicine
Williams(1870) -changed the definition forever
-the act of intentionally ending life to relieve sufferingp.24
Active or passive euthanasia
-the act of causing death deliberately by administering a toxic substance or acute physical method, leading to death within a few minutes.
-the act of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering.p.25
Passive(or indirect)euthanasia - three interpretations
Suspending all essential treatments with the intention of ending suffering(food, water, oxygen, etc)
Suspending all'unreasonable'treatments(chemotherapy,artificial respiration,dialysis,etc)
Death resulting from a necessary escalation in sedation to combat painp.26
Ending the life of a sick or injured animal
Shelter depopulation - reducing homelessness
Convenience death or premature death(convenience or premature euthanasia)p.27
Dysthanasia(greek)dys;""bad"" / thanatos;""death""
Animal dysthanasia refers to the practice of prolonging the life of animals that are seriously or even terminally ill and that are potentially experiencing suffering.
Animal dysthanasia is a recent concept, emerging from changes in the social perception of animals and from advances in veterinary care.
Definitions don't align.....
-Pain and suffering
-Caregiver psychosocial factors
-The Experiencing Self
-Last about 3 seconds, usually forgotten quickly
-The Remembering Self
-Changes, significant moments
-Danger vs safety
-Retention or Loss of the 5 Freedomsp.31
The Five Freedoms
-Freedom from hunger and thirst
-Freedom from pain, injury, and disease
-Freedom from discomfort
-Freedom to express normal behavior
-Freedom from fear and distress
Taken from the UK Farm Welfare Councilp.32
The Sixth Freedom
Freedom to die a good death
Pierce,J.The Last Walkp.33
The Decision Maker
-What is the ethical conflict?
-What are the psychosocial issues?
-Who are the potential stakeholders?
-What are the relevant ethical considerations?
-Non-maleficence - do no harm
-Beneficence - try to do good
-Justice and Fairness
-Respect for autonomyp.34
Euthanasia for Conveniencep.35
The Human-Animal Bond
-Earliest example dates 14,000 years ago
-Animals weaved into our lives, our culture, our identities
-Depth depends on a moral value
-Death can be as significant as a human loved one
-Supported by the whole teamp.36
If you can give an IV injection, you got this.p.37
-Veterinary university curriculum training only the basics, sometimes less
-Fewer than 10% of the US veterinary colleges offer core curriculum euthanasia technique training
-Specialty courses offered as the opportunities arise
-Even less taught in technician schoolsp.38
The Changing Landscape of Vet Med
Trust, Gratitude, Understanding
"You can tell a lot about a veterinarian by the way he or she handles euthanasia. How you end your patient's life can be just as important as healing the patient."
-Patricai Morris, author Blue Juicep.40
Benefits from Good Euthanasia Protocols
-Meaningful connection and engagement with clients
-Decreased compassion fatigue
-Increased hospital moral
"My vet was so wonderful."
"The staff was so caring and even cried with us,"
"I don't know how they do what they do."
"Everything was handled for me."
"I wouldn't do it any another way."p.42
"We spent all this time saying goodbye, then they asked for payment."
"The vet was barely with us...just came in, gave the shot, and left."
"You could tell he was in a hurry."
"My pet cried out in pain. I never want to go back to that place again."p.43
Mental Health Implications
-Poor death affects a loved one very deeply
-Question right time, too soon, especially when things don't go well
-Lasting effect watching a loved one struggle, hurt
-Lasting effect watching a loved one at peace, no fear or anxiety
-Fatigue for those providing it poorly or without proper self carep.44
-Knowing one's limits
-More mental and physical breaks
-Maintain personal connection
-Time for""Fun stuff"" and""Really fun stuff""
-Nourish, hydrate, and sleepp.45
What's in the Future for Euthanasia
-Increased attention to protocols and best practices
-Animal hospice acceptance and use
-Growth of mobile service
-New drugs and methods(research!)
-AVMA's Humane Endings Symposiump.46
-Euthanasia is evolving; guiding principals must remain animal rights advocacy, caregiver considerations, and veterinary team well-being
-Euthanasia may be performed by veterinarians, technicians, and law enforcement(varies state to state)
-Be mindful or term usage
-consistently providing 'Good Death' is transformative for our professionp.47
Thank you to our Online Program Sponsorsp.48